A Project Management Process Groups
Most project management technologies involve a variety of processes through which projects are performed. There are five groups of project management-related processes; these are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing process groups. Each group comprises several separate processes; often, it is needed to update or add information on a particular stage. Project management is a continuous process, requiring appropriate changes to the work done previously and plans in line with this project’s goals.
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Project Integration Management
All five groups intersect this knowledge area; the initiating process group involves managing the processes demanded to launch a new project or a new project stage. Its deliverable is creating a completed project charter (Project Management Institute [PMI], 2017). The project charter should introduce a business case for the project and a detailed overview of its scope of work, expected results, and purposes (Masciadra, 2017). The outcome of the planning process group work is developing a project management plan (PMI, 2017). The executing process group deliverables are directing and managing project work, managing project knowledge (PMI, 2017). Concerning monitoring and controlling process group, it watches project work, performing integrated change control (PMI, 2017). The closing process group is responsible for completing all project management process groups’ activities to close a project or phase formally.
Project Scope Management
Project scope management includes actions guaranteeing the identification and inclusion of activities necessary to create the project product and its successful completion. The planning process group involves the project scope knowledge area to plan scope management, collect requirements, define the scope, and create WBS (PMI, 2017). The product content description describes the project limits, including explicitly showing the project’s unachievable results and unperformed work to meet stakeholder expectations. Monitoring and controlling process group deliverables in terms of project scope management are validating and controlling the scope (PMI, 2017). During the scope validation and checking processes, the formal acceptance of a project or stage’s product and deliverables occurs based on the documents describing the results (Heldman, 2018). This allows stakeholders to check the presented outcomes.
Project Schedule Management
The project schedule management helps the planning process group define and sequence activities, estimate activity duration, plan and develop schedules (PMI, 2017). The latter is used to analyze the project’s actual state during the execution of monitoring and control processes. The monitoring and controlling process group’s primary goal is to diminish risks by recognizing deviations of project work from the schedule and timely implementation of measures to prevent them (PMI, 2017). A deliverable is schedule control that can be performed through information on the work performance, for example, in graphical form or indicators according to the earned value method, forecasts for the schedule’s accomplishment (Heldman, 2018). Changes to the project management plan and project documents may also be requested.
Project Cost Management
Project cost management and schedule management are one of the most critical tasks in project management. The planning process group deliverables include planning and estimating costs, determining the budget (PMI, 2017). The cost management plan describes the tools and methods for planning a project’s cost and monitoring its implementation. According to PMI (2017), monitoring and controlling process group work are the control costs. It monitors the project status to modernize the amount and manage changes to the expense baseline (PMI, 2017). This helps to identify project differences from the baseline appropriate. It is also essential to implement measures to correct and prevent deviation from exceeding the budget risks.
Project Quality Management
Project quality management is used by planning process group, executing process group, and monitoring and controlling process group. The deliverable of the planning process group is plan quality management (PMI, 2017). The quality management plan outlines approaches to meeting these requirements, mainly how the specified quality level will be ensured (Heldman, 2018). The executing process group manages quality, checking the use and adherence to the relevant quality assurance and measurement standards (PMI, 2017). Consequently, additional changes to the project management plan can be required. Modification requests may expect action to correct processes, prevent risks, or correct existing defects (Heldman, 2018). The monitoring and controlling process group control quality, referring to monitoring and documenting operations’ results to assess performance and make recommendations for necessary changes.
Project Resource Management
The human resources of the project are an essential factor in its success. The project resource knowledge area’s deliverables of the planning process group are planning and estimating activity resources (PMI, 2017). Three interrelated processes are carried out within the executing process group: acquiring human resources, developing a team, and its management (PMI, 2017). The deliverable of monitoring and controlling the process group is control resources (PMI, 2017). Project team management results might be change requests, updates to the human resource management plan, problem-solving, providing input to evaluate performance, and adding lessons learned to the organization’s database.
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Project Communications Management
Project communications management involves the work of planning, executing, monitoring and controlling process groups. The planning process group performs planning communications, describing all the processes concerned in providing information to the project stakeholders (PMI, 2017). The executing process group manages communications, operating all procedures from project information creation to its archiving (PMI, 2017). The information should be structured, guaranteed to be communicated to the stakeholder and perceived. Due to monitoring and controlling process groups, information about the project’s work’s execution can be generated (PMI, 2017). This group requests for changes to the project management plan, notably the communications management plan, can also be executed, project documents are updated.
Project Risk Management
The planning process group’s main tasks are identifying risks, performing a qualitative and quantitative risk examination, and planning risk management and responses. It integrates all the activities to reduce or eliminate uncertainty on achieving project goals (Heldman, 2018). The executing process group implements risk responses according to the risk register developed at the project planning stage (PMI, 2017). Activities should be performed following identified risks and the signs of their occurrence (Heldman, 2018). In the process of risk control, the monitoring and controlling process group monitor the emergence of previously identified risks to launch the planned anti-risk measures if they are realized.
Project Procurement Management
Project procurement management is especially important if the project involves a large number of suppliers. Regarding the planning process group, project procurement management is useful as it includes identifying specific vendors for the project product details (PMI, 2017). As a result of the executing process group’s activity, suppliers of the required product are selected, resource calendars are formed to execute the agreement, and possible requests for changes and updates of documents and the project management plan (Heldman, 2018). The monitoring and controlling process group through controlling procurements ensure all stakeholders meet the supply agreement’s procurement requirements and conditions (Heldman, 2018). The project team needs to understand that errors and defects in this process can lead to serious legal consequences.
Project Stakeholder Management
Project stakeholder management is intersected by the initiating process group, executing process group, monitoring and controlling process group. The initiating process group identifies stakeholders, especially their intended contribution to the project, and preferences regarding frequency and communication (Masciadra, 2017). Planning Process Group introduces a plan that describes approaches to effectively engaging stakeholders (PMI, 2017). Managing stakeholder engagement performed by the executing process group is interacting with stakeholders to satisfy their needs or expectations, facilitating appropriate involvement (PMI, 2017). As a result of the monitor stakeholder engagement, information is generated on the performance of the project’s work, including, for example, data on approved changes (PMI, 2017). Project stakeholder management aims to decrease risks by actively involving and working with participants during project execution.
To sum up, all processes are iterative; the most frequently repeated are the planning, execution, and monitoring and control process groups. Besides, the outputs from one process group become information to another. In project management, it is necessary to ensure the relationship between all knowledge areas and groups. The project administration methodology identifies five groups of management processes to ensure this relationship. Due to the clear interaction of these operations elements, any project’s management is guaranteed, regardless of its subject area.
Heldman, K. (2018). PMP: Project management professional exam study guide. John Wiley & Sons.
Masciadra, E. (2017). Traditional project management. In M. Handzic & A. Bassi (Eds.), Knowledge and project management (pp. 3-23). Springer.
Project Management Institute. (2017). A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (6th ed.). Project Management Institute.