Overall, the United States has lagged behind other developed countries in providing accessible health care to its citizens. Explanation of why the United States is behind in this arena and how this lack of health care affects persons of color
The United States lacks behind other developed countries in providing accessible healthcare because of political resistance to universal healthcare that some groups support. According to Interlandi (2019), the idea of providing universal healthcare has faced a lot of backlashes. For example, in the 1930s, the opponents “called the idea socialist and un-American and warned of government intervention in the doctor-patient relationship” (para. 14).
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Even after the Affordable Care Act, although it provided coverage for millions, it excluded some groups, mainly people of color. However, some states, for example, Arkansas, refused to implement Medicare expansion and placed additional requirements on people for them to obtain coverage under this program (Interlandi, 2019). Again, this is a political agenda that is supported by some policymakers, who believe that universal coverage is not a proper way of providing healthcare services. Moreover, the lobbying of the insurance companies and the difficulty of implementing such a system, considering the scope of it, are also significant factors.
Moreover, according to Interlandi (2019), the disparities of the minorities and their restricted access to healthcare is rooted in the history of the United States and slavery. Especially the African-American community, which has been excluded from being able to receive care or have medical education. This and other groups had to fight for their right to access healthcare services. The persons of color are affected by it because a disproportionate number of them cannot access proper care or issues with access, unlike others. Moreover, Tello (2017) argues that people of color more often receive bad treatment or do not receive the necessary medication. Hence, the existing healthcare system has significant implicit biases that affect people of color.
An Internet search on Google Scholar and find two articles on the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). A brief summary of related articles
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) is law aimed at reforming the welfare system. In an article by Schaefer (2017), it is described as a legislation that changed the welfare system in the United States. Mainly, upon the implementation, the government established Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). It reduced the number of families who could receive welfare by 60% (Schaefer, 2017). The author argues that under PRWORA, more families that previously received support from the government reported receiving income from employment. Moreover, the states gained more control over their welfare systems, for example, the distribution of food stamps.
Next, an article by Tanner (2016) explains that PRWORA allowed the states to choose which families would receive the government’s support. For example, states implemented policies where 40% of welfare recipients had to have a job in order to qualify for the support program. Moreover, a limit of 60 months was set, meaning that after five years, people could no longer receive help (Tanner, 2016). In summary, the author of this article argues that this welfare program was a step towards fighting poverty in the state, but the government is yet to introduce legislation that would allow overcoming this problem entirely.
These articles expanded my understanding of PRWORA because I understood that the main objective of this legislation was to reduce the number of families who depend on the government’s support. The three implications include more authority of the local governments, the implication that families on welfare should also have a job, with the exclusion of single mothers under the age of 18. These single mothers would have to stay in school to be eligible (Tanner, 2016). Finally, this act affected other segments of society by setting specific standards and goals for governmental programs, for example, those that limit out of wedlock births.
Interlandi, J. (2019). Why doesn’t America have universal health care? One word: Race. New York Times. Web.
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Tello, M. (2017). Racism and discrimination in health care: Providers and patients. Harvard Health Blog. Web.
Schaefer, L. (2017). The 1996 personal responsibility and work opportunity reconciliation act in the US. Center for Public Impact. Web.
Tanner, M. D. (2016). Twenty years after welfare reform: The welfare system remains in place. CATO Institute. Web.