According to Wu & Hsiao, (2021), HACCP is an abbreviation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. This operating facility is applied in curbing safety risks of dangers in food and is internationally recognized. HACCP system expects physical, biological, or chemical dangers selected and managed in a particular section of the process. Implementing this requires putting into place programs in the skill that manage dangers in the environment and prevent contamination and can be done by formulating a plan for receiving products based on HACCP, which is discussed below.
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HACCP Based Plan of Receiving Products
According to Tian (2018), the initial step is forming the HACCP team. This stage includes a group of personnel who have the skill, specialization, and experience in process or product. It consists of departments like quality assurance, production, sanitation, engineering, and food microbiology. Furthermore, local staff involved in this operation will also be included since they may benefit from external knowledge and gain experience in weighing potential chemical, biological, and physical dangers. The next step involves describing a particular product identified. The team avails a general detail of the product, processing methods, and other vital product specifications. This medium should include details of whether the product is to be refrigerated, frozen, or stored at particular temperature.
The third step is to identify the intended purpose and users. The intended users might be a section of a specific public or the general public, for instance, the elderly or infants. Another step is the construction of a flow diagram that explains the process. The team also performs an on-site review of the process to verify the completeness and accuracy of the diagram. The next step is the identification and analysis of Hazards, referred to as principle 1. Here, the team identifies appropriate control measures by carrying out risk analysis. This process involves two-stage, the first is identifying danger in the raw materials used, and the second is the evaluation of the danger.
After that, the following step is ascertaining Critical Control Points (CCPs), referred to as the second principle. These are steps at which control is used and are vital to eliminate or prevent a food safety danger or minimize up to the required level. A mechanism that enables understanding of each CCP is the CCP tree. Chilling, product control formulation, testing substances for unwanted chemical remains, thermal processing, and metal contaminants are examples of product testing.
The step following is establishing a critical limit for each CCP (Principle 3). This limit is used to differentiate the safe and unsafe conditions in the process. The limits may be based on time, temperature, humidity, moisture level, and PH. After this stage establishing systems that monitor every CCP (principle 4) follows. This medium serves the purpose of operation tracking, determining when there is a loss of control at CCP, and providing written documentation used for verification.
The following step is establishing corrective actions, referred to as principle 5. It’s important to note that no system is perfect, and therefore actions for correction should be taken if preventive measures fail to curb potential hazard products from getting to consumers. Counter actions include identifying and rectifying the cause of non-conformity, determining the disposition of non-conforming products, and recording the corrective actions taken. Each CCP should develop specific corrective actions stating what should be done and when a deviation occurs. Members of the team who intensively understand the method, product, and HACCP plan should be given the duty to oversee counteractions.
Establishing procedures of verification is another step that is involved in the HACCP plan (principle 6). Verification is activities besides monitoring that identify the validity of the HACCP plan and that of the system functions concerning the plan. Part of this includes evaluating if the facility requires little end-product testing. Another vital part of confirmation is the initial authentication of the HACCP plan to identify if it’s technically and scientifically fit. Information required to validate the plan is evaluation and measurements, scientific studies, and expert advice. Validations are done subsequently and documented by the HACCP team.
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The last step is establishing documentation and keeping records; that’s principle 7. Firstly, it includes a summary of the risk analysis that includes the rationale for identifying dangers and control measures. Secondly, the HACCP plan includes a list of the team, a description of the diagram, a verified flow diagram, and a HACCP plan summary. (Viator et al., 2017).
All this will be successfully applied if there is committed top management. Maintaining a HACCP plan which is effective will depend majorly on verification done regularly. This plan should also be updated and revised depending on the need. Another vital aspect of maintaining the HACCP system is to ensure that all personnel involved are well trained to understand their designative roles and perform effectively. Considering all this will leads to a successful product receiving process.
Tian, F. (2018). An information system for food safety monitoring in supply chains based on HACCP, blockchain, and the internet of things (Doctoral dissertation, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business).
Viator, C. L., Muth, M. K., Brophy, J. E., & Noyes, G. (2017). Costs of food safety investments in the meat and poultry slaughter industries. Journal of Food Science, 82(2), 260-269.
Wu, J. Y., & Hsiao, H. I. (2021). Food quality and safety risk diagnosis in the cold food chain through failure mode and effect analysis. Food Control, 120, 107501.