The construction industry is one of the major dangerous industries in the UK. Between 1999 and 2000, the industry had recorded the death of 105 people due to the various collapses that have occurred. The reason for the collapse has been related to the inability of some building designers not to comply with the regulations laid down by the Construction Design and Management (CDM). The CDM provides the laid down rules that the building designers and contractors must follow in order to comply with the health and safety construction of the buildings. Compliance to the rules of CDM is very essential in order to ensure the construction of a building and building maintenance are in compliance with regulation 13 of CDM so as to avoid risks to health that might have occurred during building construction. With relevance to the case of collapsed building in the case study, the main cause of the collapse are non-compliance with laid down rules of CDM regulation and the standard erection guidance offered by steel fabricators are not been followed.
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The objective of this paper is to provide the managerial report and provide a suitable solution on how the future collapse of the building of a similar event could be prevented.
As a steel fabricator, there is a need to establish a system that should guide against future accidents by adhering to erecting of the structure. Thus, to provide a suitable managerial recommendation on how to prevent future collapse in order to control risks to health and safety, there is a need to outline the main part of CDM regulations that apply to the prevention and reduction of risks to health and safety.
CDM regulations for prevention and reduction of risks to health and safety in construction
The Construction (Design and Management) regulation of 1994 and amended of CDM 2007 provides the guideline to ensure the health and safety of the construction building. According the CDM’s regulation, there is need to ensure health and safety of construction by managing a building from planning to the design. CDM health and regulations also provide health and safety guideline that guides the demolition of a building and building maintenance. To ensure health and safety, the CDM asserts that all team members who involve in the building construction must comply with CDM regulations. The team member includes designers, client, principal contractors, sub-contractor, and planning supervisors. Failure of the team member to comply with CDM regulation is a criminal offence, and it could lead to the prosecution of an offender. (Office of Government Commerce, 2007). To ensure healthy and safety of the building, there is need for the provision of health and safety file which all the construction works which include cleaning, alterations, maintenance and demolition of a building.
In addition, there should be detailed information on how to deal with hazardous materials that will be used for the construction which include asbestos, paint, pesticides, water bearing strata etc.
Moreover, the health and safety regulation contain key structural aspect of the building for example, the information of pre- and post tension members, the safe working loads for roofs and floor should be in the health and safety file.
In addition, there should be information that involves the dismantling of the installed plant for construction should be in line with CDM.
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The CDM health and safety regulation should also include unique position of a designer with regard to the detailed specification of the building, which should be in accordance with health and safety. According to CDM 2007, a designer plays a unique role in the building construction; a safety of a building depends on detailed specification of a building. Thus, a designer should play a significant role in eliminating hazard. (Health and Safety Executive, 2007). Meanwhile, safety execution of construction is essential to ensure that health and safety is safeguard.
Execution of the construction to safeguard Health and Safety
In the proposed project, there is need to develop appropriate system for the fabricator in order to safeguard Health and Safety in the execution of the project. Essentially, fabricator of the construction materials should comply with new legislation of European standard. The installation, design of fabrication of steel and other materials for the project should be in line with approved standard. To enhance safety of the proposed project, a fabricator must be fully trained, and all his skill must be in line with British standard. (Architectural Aluminium Systems, 2008).
Moreover, for health and safety of construction, a fabricator should not carry out the execution of the work in a confined spaced. In the UK, many people were killed each year with the execution of construction in a confined space. Typically, the danger of confined space may lead to suffocation of people due to lack of oxygen. During the execution of the proposal, there should be initial risk assessment that should in line with the UK Health and Safety Regulation of 1999 to enhance suitability of work environment, which fabricators should adhere. (Health and Safety Executive, 2007).During the execution of the project, a fabricator should safeguard dangerous part of the equipment during fabrication in order prevents any injury. There is also need to provide fire fighting equipment and fire detection during the execution of the project. Typically, provision of fire detection alarm and fire fighting equipment are essential to enhance health and safety. This should be in line with paragraph (1) under regulation 39(2).These fire equipments should be tested and ensure that they function properly.
To ensure that the construction is in good standard and to prevent the future collapse, there is need to devise activities to complete erection of structure.
Activities for erection of structure
Several activities need to be designed for erection of structure. They are listed in table 1.
Table 1: Activities of erection of structure
|Preparation of necessary document||There is need to prepare necessary documents before the construction begins.|
|Project approval||Project approval is employed after documentation.|
|Planning||There should be concrete planning of the project, the planning should cover drawing of the structure, calculation and design work, and this should be in accordance with BS EN 12812.|
|Site Preparation||There is need for site preparation that involves the following: |
Wrecking, earth moving and demolition of the building and other structure.
There is also need to clear the site before erecting the structure
The need for earth moving excavation that include grading, levelling, landfill, digging, blasting and rock removal.
|Resources for project.||Human and material resources.|
|Building of complete structure||This includes the assembly of prefabricated structure. It also includes the erection of the structure.|
Typically, the materials for the structure should be strong and should be stable. There is need to carry out risk assessment before erection of the structure. In the proposal, there is need to check the erection regularly, and there is need to carry out inspection of the structure during the project execution. (National statistics, 2002). The procedure for dismantling of the structure should be detailed and agreed upon.
Meanwhile, there is estimated time for the listed activities.
- Document preparation: 15 days
- Project approval: 15 days.
The listed activities for the site preparation should take approximately 3 months.
- Planning: The planning should take approximately 3 months
- Building of complete structure: This should take approximately 18 months. (See fig 1 for network diagram showing the earliest start times and finish times. Fig 2 also reveals the sequence of event of structure).
Dependencies of activities
It is essential to note that there are dependencies in the activities of the project. For example, the project approval is essential through obtaining the required documentation before there is need for planning and site preparation. Thus, the resources of material for construction are also essential for the whole completion of project.
To ensure safe precaution during construction there is need to provide a method statement.
Method statements to show the relevant construction activities
The methods statement for the project is as follows:
- The CDM regulation will be implemented to ensure that all activities carried out in the construction are in accordance with health and safety.
- All the precaution will be carried out and will be in line with CDM regulation to prevent pollution, noise, hazardous dust, and fumes within the construction site.
- To ensure health and safety, there are needs to carry out risk analysis of the project.
There are several risks associated with the project, and the risk analysis is to evaluate the risks associated with the project. Typically, carrying out the risk analysis is to enhance successful completion of a project, and to properly carrying out the risk analysis, it is essential to identify the risks associated with a project. During the project, there is unforeseen circumstance that might increase the cost of a project. This includes accidents, collapse of the structure before completion, increase in the cost of materials used for the construction of the structure. (The Association for Project Management, 2000).
Moreover, increase in the price of materials that will be used for the construction may elevate the cost of construction. Thus, if care is not taken, the initial stipulated cost for the construction might be increased before the completion of the project.
Methods to avert these risks
To avert the risks, the work procedures should be in line with CDM regulation in order to ensure health and safety and safeguard the unforeseen accident.
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To avert the collapse of the building, only qualified and competent professionals will be employed to carry out the project construction.
It is essential to realise that the frequent occurrence of accident will jeopardise the risks of project and this will make the cost of the project to increase. Thus, to avert the accident in the project, all the procedures for the construction should be in line with CDM regulation.
Thus, to ensure that the estimated cost for the construction is not inflated, there is need to consult the service of a qualified and competent quantity surveyor who will estimate the total cost that will cover the construction costs from start to finish.
Meanwhile, for the future maintenance, repair and any demolition that might have occurred there is need to draw health and safety file.
Health and Safety file
The Health and Safety file for this project will include all the precautions needed to safeguard health and safety of the people upon completion of the building. Under the regulation 14(d) of CDM, there is need to prepare health and safety file for the client that will be useful after the completion of the structure.
The content of health and safety file will be as follows:
Fire prevention plan: For prevention of fire in the structure, there is need to install the anti-fire gadget in the building. It is essential to note that fire can occur at any time, and this is typically unforeseen circumstances. Thus, for effective fire prevention, there is to install anti-fire gadget in all the locations in the building. If any of them is used, damage or lost, there is need to immediately replace this anti-fire gadget, and the replaced one should be related to the British standard.
Moreover, in the future there may be need to repair certain damaged features in the structure. Repairing of the structure is very important in order to ensure that the building maintain its stipulated standard. To carry out the building maintenance, a qualified person should be allowed to carry out this task. It is essential to note that if unqualified person is allowed to carry out the repairing of the structure, this may jeopardise the health and safety because an unqualified person can damage any structure in the building that may lead to an accident.
In addition, for the demolition of the building in the future, it should be in line with CDM regulation to safeguard health and safety during the demolition of the structure. The demolition should be carried out in the manner to prevent danger, death or accidents. Thus, to carry out the demolition of a structure, competent professionals should be allowed to carry out the demolition. Typically, there should be arrangement of how demolition should be carried out before starting of actual demolition. This is essential to ensure that the health and safety of the people who will be involved in demolition are secured.
Finally, all explosive and any materials that are suspected to be explosive should be stored in a safety place.
However, there is need to critically examine the extent the CDM regulation has been able to manage health and safety in construction.
Extent by which CDM regulations have been able to manage construction
The purpose of CDM regulation 1999 and CDM 2007 are to ensure the health and safety in the construction site in the UK. Although, CDM highlighted several criteria by which a team member in a construction adhere to health and safety. Typically, the information provided in the CDM regulation is to ensure health and safety. Despite the contribution of CDM in enhancing health and safety, there are criticisms levied against CDM regulation. Some commentators have argued that there is high level of bureaucracy in the implementation of CDM regulation and this has impeded the smooth delivery of CDM regulation. For example, there is issue of high burden of paper work for a designer during construction, and there is argument that CDM needs to reduce the administrative procedures of paperwork.
In addition, there is criticism on CDM about cost effectiveness, and the paper work burden will not increase safety that CDM has been designed to implement.
It should be revealed the analysis of construction accident carried out by Health and Safety Executive (2007) between 1996 and 2008 revealed that the number of major injuries in the construction industry in the UK between 2004 and 2008 were nearly the same. Thus, this has revealed that CDM 1999 and amended CDM 2007 are not as effective as it has planned because there is no reduction in the injuries caused by building constructions between 2004 and 2008 Thus, the CDM needs to address some of its problems that will lead to reduction of construction accidents in the UK.
This paper examines how CDM regulation can be implemented in the proposed construction in order to safeguard health and safety in the future construction. Several criteria are considered in the proposal. Criteria on how health and safety could be implemented in the project are considered. The health and safety file was also presented in the proposal, and this will help the client to adhere to CDM regulation after the completion of the project.
List of References
Architectural Aluminium System, (2008). ‘CE Marking and The New European Standards For Windows and Doors’. Technical. UK.
Health and Safety Executive, (2007). ‘Managing health and safety in construction. Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 Approved Code of Practice’.HSE.UK.
Health and Safety, ‘The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007’. HSE.UK.
Health and Safety Executive (2007). ‘HSE Construction Intelligence Report: Analysis of Construction Injury and ill Health Intelligence’ HSE.UK.
National statistics, (2002). ‘UK SIC 1992: Explanatory Notes’ Office of National Statistics. UK.
Office of Government Commerce, (2007). ‘Health and Safety Achieving Excellence in Construction Procurement Guide’. Office of Government Commerce. UK.
The Association For Project Management, (2000).’ Project Risk Analysis and Management’. The University of Birmingham. UK.