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Cause and Consequence of the Big Rip


A reasonably new hypothesis as regards the demise of the universe gives a depiction of phantom energy ripping planetary bodies in space and ultimately all fragment of matter in an unbelievable end to time. Based on science it is just about the most revolting idea ever conceived.

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This study is proudly advocated a leading scholar at the University of Dartmouth called Robert Caldwell. It explained one probable effect for some experiments carried out years back on planetary that the world we live in is expanding at a constantly rising speed and that something unusual is vacuuming everything outward. Caldwell and his contemporaries have asked a question as to the result of acceleration been greater than before.

Their respond is that the ultimate, extraordinary pace would overcome the normal, trusted effects of gravity correctly downward to the confined level.

According to Caldwell (23) the expansion results to be so swift that it accurately rips separately all substances that are joined together. It splits separately groups of galaxies. It rips separately stars. It splits separately the planetary bodies. And it ultimately rips separately all matter. He names it, the Big Rip (Mateo 221).

The Typical Observation

Increasing the identified acceleration of the universe’s expansion is a strange thing called dark energy, considered by scientists as opposed to – gravity operating over large distances.

Predictable understanding gives details that the increase of rate will continue at a regular rate, parallel to a car that speeds 10 meters per hour more quickly with every distance covered. With nothing to hamper the increase of rate, all planetary bodies will ultimately move away from one another at the speed of light, leaving the other bodies in a cold, gloomy universe in some billion years to come. That is the usual observation, outstanding as it sounds.

The Big Rip puts it that the competency of dark energy is always increasing with time, until it cannot be controlled. Come to think of a vehicle moving faster at an extra 5 meters per hour every mile, and some yards, let’s say a hundred yards, then some feet.

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Before you realize the bumpers are liable to get off. Earlier or afterward, our hypothetical engine will come to one side, in spite of how much we use on motor oil.

Cause of the Big Rip

To transform dark energy into destructive phantom energy, Caldwell and his contemporaries had to devise a way with a thing identified as the cosmological constant, an arithmetical fix that Einstein used in the general theory of relativity. Recently the cosmological constant has been revitalized. In a number of models, the compactness reduces slowly. The compactness is a constant. That changes variably.

We measured an extra exotic type of dark energy which was more revolting. A scholar at Harvard in the department of Astrophysics named Abraham Loeb, has enumerated the lonely effects of an eternally expanding universe. He supports the scenario, however he stated that Caldwell’s idea is nevertheless fascinating to explore I believe it is a logical prospect. Although he warned that changing the cosmological constant goes in opposition to present consensus (Griest 25).

The writers of this theory spear headed by Robert Caldwell, estimate the instance from at present to the end of the universe as we are aware of this type of energy to be:

  • trip – to ≈ 2 / 3|1 + w|Ho√1-Ωm

Given w as a repulsive force measured by Dark Energy, H0 is Hubble’s constant and Ωm is the contemporary value of the compactness of all matter.

In their term paper they gave an illustration with w = -1.5, H0 = 70 km/s/MPsec and Ωm = 0.3, in every example that end of the universe is roughly 22 billion years at present. It is not well thought-out as a guess, but as a theoretical case. The authors further explained that proof shows w is very close to -1 in our universe, which makes ω the leading term in the equation. The nearer (1 + w) is to zero, the nearer the denominator is to zero and the farther in time is the Big Rip. If w were precisely the same to -1 hence the Big Rip might not occur, in spite of the values of H0 or Ω m.

In their experiment for w = -1.5, the galaxies would foremost be divided from each other and that about 60 million years previous to the end, gravity would be too fragile to grasp the Milky Way and some other existing galaxies collectively. Roughly three months previous to the end of the universe, gravitationally the Solar system will be boundless. During the very last minutes, stars and planets will be divided to one side, and an instant previous to the end, atoms will be shattered.

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Consequence of Big Rip

Countdown to end

Other scientists who have analyzed the Big Rip hypothesis are not yet sold on the thought. In the meantime, Caldwell’s group has given an accurate countdown to entire end. The predictable demise is, encouragingly, 20 billion years ahead. If our generation lives on the next 19 billion years and there is uncertainty concerning this, knowing our Sun’s predictable fate here are some acknowledgements that our prospective scientists will desire to search for.

A billion years previous to the demise, all galaxies will have moved away so far and so swift from our own as to be wiped away from the sky, as in no longer observable.

As soon as the Milky Way starts to soar separately and about 40 or 50 million will be the only years remaining.

Our planetary bodies in space escape the Sun in a short while previous to the end of time (Turner and White 84).

As soon as the Earth blows up, the end is for a moment close.

According to Caldwell (102) during this time, there is still a small time before atoms and even their nuclei rupture apart. The only time remaining is some few minutes, Even though it is not reasonable. Does the universe reprocess its own self? Is something following nothing?

According to Cardwell (125) I am not certain about what will happen following that. It seems like time will finally come to an end.

The Initial explosion

Caldwell’s research had humble initial stages. He and his contemporaries carried out some research on how a sphere of substance crumbles below its own mass to result to a galaxy. By computer simulations, they tweaked with the dark energy factor and discovered that excess of it would in fact avoid the collapse of the sphere. In severe cases, the sphere blew up.

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It has been discovered of recent that the universe might take a new course, as to whether usual gravity would succeed, and that all things would be back to normal. Lately, solid examinational facts have all but guaranteed the endless expansion model and the cold, dark, never ending end (Boyle et al, 112).

Caldwell and his group arrived at conclusion that there was a third possibility, giving way to their latest term paper, submitted recently for Review.

Although, there are a lot of things not known, It is not apparent whether dark energy dynamic expansion is a force not at present explained by physics, or if it is only an unusual manifestation of gravity over vast distances. The repulsion might be an answer to dark matter, unobserved stuff that is recognized to include 23 percent of the universe, based on firm explanations.

According to Caldwell (266) dark matter contains properties that are not known, it might be associated to dark energy and that even Einstein thought that gravity could work repulsively, in a way regular with his theory of relativity.

Recently as Dark energy is being solved; it turns out to be analyzed as some extraordinary new force, together with all the four basic forces that administer atoms.


Dark Energy and the Big Rip: in determining, how the equation of state of Dark Energy can be parameterized as p = wPde, where Pde is the energy density of the dark energy. In a Universe which has both matter and dark energy, we can rewrite the equation of state as p = w (Ptot – P matter). Hence, we can describe the Universe with an “effective” equation of state p = weffPtot where weff = w (1−Pmatter/Ptot).

  • An analysis of one of Friedmann’s equation shows that the total energy density of the Universe depends on the scale factor (“size”) of the Universe R according to Ptot µ R−3(1+weff).

By discussing the behavior of this expression in the two special cases of pure normal matter (weff = 0) and pure vacuum energy weff = −1.

  • Use the other Friedmann equation,

1/R d2R /dt2 = − 4pG/ 3 (1+3weff) P tot,

To show that the resulting time-dependence of the scale factor is R µ t−2/3(1+weff).

  • Show that acceleration only occurs when weff < −1/3.
  • At the current time, we know that weff > −1. However, suppose that the equation of state of dark energy itself has w < −1. As the Universe expands and dark energy becomes more dominate, the value of weff will move closer to w. Explain why something dramatic will happen at the point where weff = −1. What will be the nature of this dramatic event? [This event is often referred to as the Big Rip].

From science fiction to reality

If Caldwell’s group is correct, cosmology might experience a complete revolution. Thoughts like wormholes and time acceleration as a result might rapidly transcend the sphere of science. Very soon all of this will come to lime light.

Explanations in the coming years may in fact prove whether his phantom energy is probable.

According to Caldwell (270) who understands whether it is correct or incorrect, and I believe we will discover it out very soon.

In truth, latest explanations from NASA’s space survey have tracked down the physics of the universe with astonishing accuracy. A small twist prospect of cosmological constant still holds. However, more NASA’s WMAP information is anticipated over the next few years to come. Several assignments, together with one named the (SNAP), might give good answers (Wilford162).

Alternate Last Phase

A Princeton University lecturer of physics by name Paul Steinhardt, shares the same views with Caldwell and Loeb, there are not unfamiliar to bizarre ideas. He supports a universe that is cyclical, one that has no beginning or ending however, as a substitute is continually starting over once more.

Steinhardt hypothesizes inside the commonly acknowledged principles of the cosmological constant. He believed the Big Rip is more unusual than most thoughts but still imaginable, a predictable likely result that is “simple and clear for cosmologists.”

However there is another totally dissimilar likelihood for the last phase of time as we know it. (Caldwell et al, 231).

A hypothesis put forward some years ago by Steinhardt that our universe is a membrane, and that is being kept aloft in a five dimensional space. It is certain to crash radically with another brane. The concept, tagged the Ekpyrotic Universe, would reinstate pieces of the Big Bang scenario whereas attaching to the currently accepted approximation of acceleration.

“Lest you are excessively positive, galaxies are smashed in a far more fierce way,” Steinhardt explained of the scenario concerning the brane. “They are vaporized at the subsequent ‘bang’ that is, the smash involving branes so, it is left for you to either rip them separately or you vaporize them.” (Carroll 52).

Although, the scenario of phantom energy does breach a respected theory of general relativity identified as “the prevailing energy state,” a theory that maintains energies positive and enforces energy preservation on a universal scale. It is the prevailing energy state that aids to strike out some manipulations of the theory of general relativity that would allow things like wormholes and time machines. If the scenario of phantom energy is really valid, the prevailing energy state can only be fulfilled by expanding the representation, in other for phantom energy to be completed from a phantom origin “outside” the universe. Due to these recent study that say w< -1 cosmologies, issues at moment are not yet been enlightened.


Based on these reasons, the assumptions are mostly theoretical. The ripping separately of the universe is a gloomy picture. There possibly will be a factual End of Time that is forthcoming at a stable speed. Moreover no matter how hard we inquire about to accomplish some immortality by imaginative acts that are conserved for posterity, the Big Rip gives assurance to wipe out everything, without even the fulfillment of final reprocessing implicit in the cycling of these scenarios. Maybe the single flee from the predictable Big Rip would be to produce a number of extra dimensional wormhole route to a universe that has a few hostile parameters.

Maybe we ought to be researching on that, as a lasting goal.

Works cited

Boyle, Robert, and Marc Kamionkowski. Physics: Introduction to Physics Letters. Trent, New York: 2002. B 545, 17–22.

Caldwell, Dave, and Steinhardt P. Physics: Revelation Letter. Detroit, Michigan: 1998. 80, 1582–1585.

Carroll, D. Ollie. Intro to Modern Astrophysics 2nd ed. San Francisco, California: Pearson Books, 2007.

Griest, Kim. “The Search for the Dark Matter”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Ed. David Kent. New York, NY: Bret Books, 1993. 390- 407.

Mateo, Mario. “Searching for Dark Matter.” Sky and Telescope. Ed. John Bill. Massachusetts, Boston: Bee Books, 1994. 90, 20 – 24.

Turner and White M. Physics: Revelation to Modern Physics. Ed. Tom Brain. Detroit, Michigan: Kenny Books, 1997. 56, 4439–4443.

Wilford, John Noble. “Astronomy Crisis Deepens As the Hubble Telescope Finds No Missing Mass.” New York Times.

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