Teamwork is important in nursing profession as it determines communication and collaboration between different medical professions. Team work has always been very popular and important in nursing. Because self-managing members are working on permanent teams, the effort and expense involved in changing compensation structures is often justified. However, in more temporary teams, such as cross-functional or problem solving teams, other types of HR policy changes (for example, altering an evaluation system to include team behaviors) may be more appropriate to encourage positive behaviors. To be an effective team, it is important to integrate three component including effective communication, positive personal relationships and cooperation atmosphere.
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Background of Teamwork
In nursing practice, effective team work is crucial for knowledge acquisition process. For this group, team communication is one of the main elements which help the organization to create high performance teams and achieve further growth and development. In general, a nursing team can be defined as a group of individuals working together to solve problems or accomplish tasks. It is the ever-changing collective feelings, hopes, problems and pains of the community. Rather than simply “tell” nurses that a certain situation or problem is interesting or important, researchers suggest that the managers and administrator should try to arouse their sense of curiosity. Once aroused, it will carry the nursing professional through the planned course of project. Nurses must get involved with whatever topic or problem they select and must learn its characteristics as well as the general skills of problem solving. In short, we learn by doing. The traditional, logical method of working presents a systematic, organized body of material. The psychological method links the subject to the life situation and then lets him or her work through it in initially chaotic form until a clearer understanding emerges (Blythe, 2008).
Structure of Communication in Teams
For a nurse professional, teams are a powerful design option that hopes to meet the challenges of increased knowledge demands, improve output quality, and address the social needs of the ever-changing global workforce. However, the success or failure of work teams will depend largely on communication. Effective communication requires that HR practitioners adapt key assumptions about motivation, structure, and accountability. Adapted assumptions must support lateral thinking, collaboration, interdependence, a focus on process, permeable boundaries, and mutual responsibility. Nursing teams are most effective when there is high task interdependence or a high degree of coordination and collaboration required between team members to accomplish tasks (Osborn et al 2004). Work teams are also more appropriate when the tasks that their members carry out are complex and well designed. Moreover, if what nursing professionals find to be the most workable morality is at variance with that of the larger society, then the teacher may recommend that the pupils assume some responsibility in changing the prevailing social pattern. Hence the school has a greater duty than merely the inculcation of existing social practice. Its function is the intelligent criticism of the public standard (LaFasto and Larsen, 2006).
Individualists view their team as an entity in and of itself rather than one that is connected to the external context and are therefore even less apt to use external sources of information to make corrections in their behavior and improve their performance. To develop an effective team, nursing professionals can encourage sharing practices within and between nurses and other medical professionals, observe and adapt to environmental trends, and maintain awareness of cultural convergence (Osborn et al 2004). Nursing professionals who can change their assumptions and are adept at modifying basic learning practices will be better poised to face future trends in the use of teams that are just on the horizon. The effective communication is a critical tool for increasing nursing professionals awareness of the value of their contribution to the success and for creating a dialogue with their teachers and collogues that can enhance the contributions that nursing professionals can make. Indeed, change and organizational transformation are unlikely to occur without new values being introduced into the performance management system (Kozier et al 2004).
Interpersonal Relations and Conflict Resolution
Interpersonal relations and conflict resolution are apart of medical profession. This is the core of effective team work because all people can make mistakes and it is important for all team members to be calm and patient towards other nursing professionals. In teams, standards of morality become relativized and popularized: what is right for one person or society can be wrong for another, depending on their different experiences. However, this line of thinking makes a fundamental mistake: while each person or group has a particular perspective on ethics, it does not follow that there are no universal principles of morality. Although changing situations demand different applications of moral principles (Werner et al 2004).
Team Leader as a Negotiator
The role of the team leader is to set realistic expectations for nurses and the task of the nurse is to follow them. This allows them to stay motivated while at the same time remaining open to learning from feedback and mistakes. Doing so often requires extending team members’ task skills. Task skills and effective performance is impossible without effective communication and positive climate. Multi-skilled teamwork involves teams made up of individuals with multiple and overlapping skills that are deployed around the performance of a whole task, which represents a significant part of a larger work flow. Members are multi-skilled so that work can be flexibly allocated among them. In organizing work around processes, organizational boundaries must often be renegotiated (Osborn et al 2004). The nurse is one who experiences and hence the immediate experience of the nursing professionals must be addressed. But a danger is that the nursing professional can get the impression that he or she is the center of the medical enterprise, almost an autonomous agent in the schooling process. It is possible, then, that this orientation can lead nursing professionals to be too egocentric, preoccupied with their own immediate needs and desires to the extent that they fail to understand and appreciate a larger perspective on human life and history. Christianity agrees with experimentalism that the need for human cooperation is paramount in medical settings (Parker-Oliver et al 2005).
Principles of Conflict Resolution
Strict moral and ethical principles are the core of conflict management. The chief characteristic of the individual is the necessity of making choices, the inescapable burden of choosing who I am and what I will be. Even those who search for answers in the will and plan of God, as religion offers, or in the principles of transcendental metaphysics, as idealism offers, must choose to accept or reject what is offered. And those who claim that questions about the ultimate meaning of life need not be addressed. The effective team working is based on mutual understanding and agreement between all team members and their close and friendly relations. Focus on the individual, out of proportion to the corporate heritage of humanity, can erode interest in transmitting and improving civilization and culture. In the end, it can lead to the illusion that the individual is the center of the universe. The initial promise of total freedom and complete responsibility can result in profound unhappiness and melancholy (Meyers, 2006).
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Conflict Resolution and a Graduate Nurse
For a graduate nurse, team dynamics can be achieved by effective communication which increased cohesiveness of the team. These types of work structures require a whole new notion of collaboration—collaboration with external constituencies. A potential impediment to the success of work teams comes from differences in nursing professional preferences and values. Just as some cultures are more individualistic or more collectivistic than others, individuals within cultures also vary on this dimension—even though there is, on average, more variation across cultures than within cultures. Numerous impediments will challenge the effective implementation of teams across national contexts, including the inherent time lag between implementation and results, the often tenuous relationships between teams, cultural differences that require adaptations in practices to fit the context, and increasing domestic demographic diversity within nations (Chapman and Toseland 2007). As temporary team structures, multicultural teams, and virtual teams proliferate, these team-savvy practitioners will be able to lead their organizations through successful implementation and use of teams in medical environment and treatment process (Garrison et al 2004).
Working in difficult environment or with culturally-diverse patients, the graduate nurse cannot come to agreement about the best solution and future project development needs. The team ahs worked on this project for half a year, and has to accept the most important decision related to project outcomes and success. Each of the nurses propose his problem-solving approach, but refuses to accept or analyze the approach proposed by other nursing professionals (Osborn et al 2004). Some of the team members have no interest in their job because they cannot be creative and innovative. Motivational conflict is also inevitable and on some occasions can actually be beneficial to the greater well-being of the organization. The main causes of the conflict are lack of mutual trust and poor communication between team members. While it is still a good course of action to prevent misunderstanding, when it does arise the effective manager needs to understand the nature and the causes of the conflict and then choose an appropriate action to deal with it (Hanlan, 2004).
Influence of Culture
Teamwork and organizational design influence organizational culture and performance. The case of the project conflict proves that well-thought organizational design and teamwork lead to positive climate and high morale of nursing professionals. To the extent that organizations can agree on goals and on the means to attain them, organizational politics can be reduced. In the absence of this qualification there will be differences of opinion and conflict. Differences of opinion that take in all available points of view are useful in formulating the right goal. However, if conflict becomes bitter, focused on personalities, or results in power struggles, the organization will be harmed. Few organizations retain the dispassionate efficiency to consistently focus on totally clear and agreed-upon goals. What is clear is that in all organizations, at least some stakeholders will disagree as to means or ends. Therefore, there will always be some degree of political activity and the use of power. Nevertheless, generalizations can be made about the kinds of organizations in which there is more likely to be agreement on goals and the means to attain them (Osborn et al 2004).
Team members worry about changes and experience some stress caused by work problems. The organizational interest is served by the foregoing approach because it benefits from the decision maker’s personal interest and effort in controlling each supporting dialogue. In effect, the decision maker addresses and works out the concerns of the interested parties in each of the component dialogues as part of the decision-making process. The usual result is a rational decision acceptable to all the interests involved. At the present time the managerial playing field is not level. In order to avoid such situations in future the a nursing professional manager pay attention to (1) personal needs of nursing professionals and (2) their career hopes, (3) interest in the job they perform and (4) possible training programs. Also, it is important to recognize level of responsibility and advancement opportunities for professional workers (Osborn et al 2004). The appeal approach is solving conflicts is also a part of ethical program. It implies that the organization’s main task is to help nursing professionals to keep their ace and meet moral and ethical principles they value. In such situation, the committee is composed of nursing professionals from the organization and various representatives of community organizations. Once both the project capabilities and community needs are established, then some form of ethical procedure is established for determining the best solution (Werner et al 2004).
The Success of Conflict Resolution
In hospital, the success of conflict resolution is based on effective appraisal system and compensation. Conflict resolution is a natural and necessary part of organizational life, and forms the cornerstone to many basic human resources management practices. In spite of its central role in the HR drama, the reviews of decision-making practices have been mixed, at best. In particular, problems in rater accuracy and consistency, negative impacts on nursing professional commitment and motivation, poor administrative choices for system design and operation, and faulty rating scales all work to compromise the potential value that appraisals can provide. The common assumption about decision-making and appraisal systems is that the system should help a supervisor manage nursing professional performance more effectively (Osborn et al 2004). The ways by which this is accomplished include specifying desired customer service, monitoring customer service, coaching and customer service feedback, and linking rewards to performance. Though, this goal may not always be achieved in practice. For this research project, you are to interview a manager or supervisor who participates in nursing professional evaluations appraisal in order to learn of his or her experiences in using conflict resolution principles: peace-making, clarification of conflict situations, personal interest identification, legitimacy, commitment and positive communication. The medical institution and its management team should set goals and strategies for nursing professionals in order to overcome conflict situations and agree a plan of actions. To be an effective manager, a nursing professional must anticipate the future in order that his organization may play a role in that future, rather than being totally subject to it. When envisioning the future, one should attempt to see what new opportunities will be there that will allow their organization to prosper and to grow. The appeal approach is solving conflicts is also a part of ethical program. It implies that the organization’s main task is to help nursing professionals to keep their ace and meet moral and ethical principles they value. In such situation, the committee is composed of nursing professionals from the organization and various representatives of community organizations. Once both organization capabilities and community needs are established, then some form of ethical procedure is established for determining the best solution. Ethics program motivates nursing professionals to meet the highest standards and respond effectively to all conflict situations occur during a working day. Once a program has been made it is carefully monitored; this involves both review and control of ethical principles and norms. Proper monitoring enhances the positive image of the import/export organization (Werner et al 2004).
In sum, conflict management practices should be based on stipulated moral norms which would help the organization to motivate and inspire nursing professionals, support them and control performance. To gain control in the area of ethics and to make certain that ethical objectives are actually being met, the import/export organization has started using an ethical audit to measure, monitor, and evaluate the contributions that the organization is making to society and stakeholders. In many conflict situations ethical principles become a guide for conflict resolutions and decision-making. Feedback and follow-up ensure that the decision is executed within time and principles of ethics. The well-managed organization of today should make every effort to meet its obligations to people. To help them with this, the import/export company has written objectives and policies in this area. In spite of this, ethical objectives and goals exist in an area that is not always easy to assess and independently appraise.
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Werner, P., Carmel, S., Ziedenberg, H/ (2004). Nurses’ and Social Workers’ Attitudes and Beliefs about and Involvement in Life-Sustaining Treatment Decisions. Health and Social Work, 29 (1), 27.