The contemporary world of rapid development of Information Technology has made each sector of life with ease and efficiency. Information technology has found its place of importance and application in the daily as well as business life of people. “The term information system refers to information technology that is used by people to accomplish a specified organizational or individual objective. The specific technologies that collectively comprise information technology are computer technology and data communications technology.” (Information Systems Discipline para 2).
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The application of specific usage of information technology is named information systems. The advent of such systems made organizational and personal needs of individuals to be met in a systematic mode. The information systems are interactive domains of progressions and expertise applied to meet various needs inside and among group margins. The information system cannot be the technology alone but the method used to access its application as well as the modes in which it helps in achieving the required application in the field. In a broader sense, information technology is always discrete when concerned with the information system, because information technology alone cannot bring about an information system but other components and course of action have to accompany it. An algorithm, program to accomplish it in computer, a system with the computer along with other controlling hardware and the particulars to be processed all together make an information system. Though every information system has the same overview, there are separate systems with different components and modules at each block of the overview. Different examples for information systems include contract processing systems, administrative systems, verdict sustain systems, information administration systems, database management systems, and agency information systems, etc. which are named after their precise purposes.
The position given to the information systems is to handle the areas which are less suitable for humans to keep tedious with chances for erroneous output. Those include simultaneous accomplishment of solving huge computations, doing the administration of different databases of larger sizes, etc. Information systems sections in bigger associations are liable to robust pressure from information skill advancement sectors which amalgamate various employments of the submission of the association that may be commerce or conglomerate. The successive steps in a sequence comprising of various tactics and practices are utilized for the setting up of an information system as well as using it to meet the requirements. Nowadays the innovations of the engineering sectors are seen in the developmental phase of information systems as well which led to the usage of different prolific techniques like System Development Life Cycle (SLDC). “The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application.” (System Development Life cycle para 1). SLDC is the extensively employed method in the different sectors for the modeling of information systems. A well-modeled system can always accomplish the needs much efficiently.
Information Systems in Parks & Recreation
The entertainment sector worldwide recognizes the application of information technology in their sector for effective management and profit in the field of business. The information systems find their position of priority in this field as they eliminate the redundancies produced if the humans are employed for the entire processes that needed much precision.
The development in the entertainment and refreshing sectors has seen the fresh launches of parks and recreation centers worldwide. Each advent analyses the possibilities of novel information system techniques to be installed at their enterprises for best results and profit yields due to maximum customer satisfaction. The usage of various information systems in parks and recreation centers have to lead to a flourish in the field because it becomes easy to handle the huge number of customers, their well being at the places, administration of the databases of the customers and employees as well as the services for the customers along with maintenance work.
The entertainment and refresh sector worldwide has already gained pace with the help of the information systems administrated in their trade. At different places, the organizations for setting up such systems for the parks and recreation requirements have been launched as a successful section of the trade. “In 2004 the Parks and Recreation Management Team decided the department needed a more efficient system for managing and disseminating Park information to assist staff with the planning, management, and maintenance of the Park’s System.” (Jenson and Stonich 1).
Such resolutions have paved the way for the team project development firms. They estimate the requirements and conduct various analysis studies finally concluding on selecting a compact and efficient information system for the required parks or centers.
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The basic concept for the application of information systems is shown in the figure above which was developed by a program launch for the parks and recreation centers at the City of Boulder. The various blocks are integrated into a single system that handles the entire management sector within the parks and their locations and premises. The information systems at parks should usually meet the handling of the databases of the customers, assisting them inside the park, managing them with the rules and regulations of the park, and providing customer care services taking care of all the customers with proper care and help inside the park.
The databases at parks and other such firms will be of vast sizes whose manual storage and management will be of great complexity. Also, while large sizes of the database are present, the entire data will become a hindrance to the access and usage of frequently essential and significant commerce data when the manual approach is adopted. So, the information systems come into the picture, which can handle very large databases and access any with ease and speed. Using such systems, it becomes easier to access frequently required data stored, and less required ones will never hinder the smooth handling of the essential databases. But, it is very important to maintain statistics trim downward to get the data that is actually practical and supportive. The extremely higher sizes of databases will result in a quagmire situation of the systems and gyrate time for the system gets elongated leading to erroneous outcomes from the system obviously ensuing to wrong and difficult access of crucial data.
“The better designed the database “architecture,” the more efficiently the related data within the database records and files can be accessed.” (Database Management and Information Systems para 3).
It is not just the matter of installing the information systems for the database management; the efficiency of the administered system is actually what matters. Accordingly, the application is met with the output which is the essential criteria.
The information technology as implied for the database management requirements has led to the introduction of separate information systems named Data Base Management Systems. “A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of the database of an organization and its end users. It allows organizations to place control of organization-wide database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists.” (Database Management System para 1).
The Database Management System is actually a set of software that acts as the manager of the databases and manages those databases by storing them in computers and recovering them from the stored computers at the time of their need. DBMS facilitates the utilization of incorporated compilation of statistics proceedings and documentation identified as database. The usage of DBMS in the parks’ data management will have different approaches called database representations like network or relational models. Another advantage of the database management systems is the provision of 4G languages. 4G languages are the fourth-generation programming languages which are the fresh bliss to the information systems always identified many efficient ones to the languages introduced before them. Admittance, reliability contemporaneous, and renovation of databases can be achieved with the introduction of information systems in the management of databases of the customers as well as the staff at the parks and recreation centers. Thus, a non-erroneous and alleviated approach of access is attained through information systems in the data administration sector.
The entertainment business centers including parks and recreation centers recognize that acquiescence has analogous precedence as income. The billing is an important aspect in such firms as the customers are at the number of thousands and the billing has to be done with speed and accuracy. Thus, a system with the inbuilt records on the rate, received, returned and the total amount of transactions are made for the efficient billing procedures; the manual work will never do well in this context.
“A high level of transparency can be established if the billing service completes its work in your information system through a remote connection. Agency staff can access the information system at any time to understand charges, billings, and remittances.” (Viger, Milford and Plourde para 4).
An excellent billing system recognizes apprehension associated with billing procedures by assiduously supervising policies, blunder information as well as refutations. The efficiency in the execution of billing procedures is always weighted with respect to the point of reference and the information is fed back to the clients for excellence enhancement.
Parks and recreation centers have their customers with no holidays for them; so the staff should be alert in this regard. The number of staff cannot be increased beyond an exceeding limit; here the information systems find their status. But the tiredness can attack humans, not the systems. If properly serviced, the systems will work well without laziness. A number of firms face considerable billing interludes due to the absconding of their employees. Insufficient employment guides to an insufficient meeting of the requirements and dealings including fault inspection, requisite confirmation, and settlements which frequently are ignored. This leads to the generation of authorized responsibility for the organization, which has significant transparency for enrollment, billing practice guidance, and software education. Billing procedures offer employees idleness that the majority of firms like parks and recreation centers cannot entertain at any cost.
The redundancies in the billing services are eliminated by the advent of information systems into that domain. The installation of such systems reduces the number of employees for the billing procedure and the billing can be carried out with ease and pace which meets customer satisfaction to a large extent. The requirements are an electronic billing system, a skilled operator, and customers seeking their bills. The billing services are being modified to a maximum limit in the contemporary world with the applications of the most modern information technological expertise. The parks and recreation centers always opt for the convenience of their customers and the way has been made clear for the information systems into such firms for the billing sector. “As the “value” of the customer has been realized, so has the need to create innovative pricing and billing models.” (Pitch 1).
The latest innovations in the billing procedure are accepted by the customers because of the expediency they experience through such systems.
The introduction of information systems in the service development sectors has resulted in an extensive increase in profit due to the increased number of customers in the parks and recreation business. The helpful information systems are employed in every sector nowadays owing to the vastness of the advantages backing them. The service portals and e-marketing are all the endowments from the section of information systems to the business areas.
The investigations on developing the services with the help of information systems applications are being administered during the entire age of business expansion. The implications of information technology to the service developmental sector have led to the introduction of service-oriented architectures. “Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a business-centric IT architectural approach that supports integrating your business as linked, repeatable business tasks, or services.” (Service Oriented Architecture- SOA para 1).
The services rendered by the parks and recreation centers can be developed to a considerable extent with the installation of information systems for the purpose. Service direction necessitates liberated coupling of services through information systems and additional expertise to facilitate inspiring applications. The numerous sections inside a firm or between firms should be incorporated through different components of the software in the information systems set even though the different sections may be installed in considerably different systems.
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The Service-Oriented Architectures are used in the sectors like parks and recreation centers to differentiate the discrete sections or services rendered by them effectively and to admit data communication over a system that always combines the whole of the units for the convenient usage of services by the customers of those parks and recreation centers. The contact between services rendered is established with the help of efficient synchronized connections between them. Consistent reliability is the motto of the establishment of information systems for the development of services in venues including parks and recreation centers.
The service-oriented architecture is the technique arrived for the quenching of the more efficient system requirement. Prior to its arrival enterprise information systems were used at every enterprise. “Most enterprises have made extensive investments in system resources over the course of many years. Such enterprises have an enormous amount of data stored in legacy enterprise information systems (EIS), so it’s not practical to discard existing systems.” (Mahamoud para 1).
The main drawback which paved the way for the newer information systems of service-oriented architecture was the charges in the case of EIS. SOA turned to be more profitable compared to the EIS systems. Anyways, the enterprises were sure about the utility of the information systems for the service development procedures. The outstanding factor of the service development with the information systems is the differentiation of the services and their execution within the system. So, the executions are with ease and the customers remain unaware of the actual complex executions carried out for their requirement of any service within the systems.
The application of information systems in infrastructure management has been recognized as an important aspect of business management in the current modern world. The interconnected communication and transportation setup is very essential for parks and recreation centers of contemporary society. The speed of the culture prevailing should be applied to the different sectors of life of the people for wider acceptance of any launch. “”Traditional infrastructure,” in addition to systems like telecommunications and information infrastructure, is a necessary enabler for community and economic development.” (Infrastructure Management Information System Project Report 1).
The market for information systems has recognized their applications in infrastructure management as well. The parks of wider coverage areas usually opt for an information system of infrastructure under the computer systems and various connections associated with those.
The business opting for a greater outcome from customer satisfaction as well as efficient infrastructure depends mainly on the information systems. “An on-demand business needs to extend its information management strategy—transforming its business processes and changing how the company uses the information to drive insight.” (Information Infrastructure 1).
The management of the infrastructure is more important than the setting up of the infrastructure. If the maintenance fails, the entire infrastructure turns out to be a useless expense. “Integration offers a wide range of capabilities—federation, replication, content integration, enterprise search and event publishing—designed to meet varied integration requirements.” (Information Infrastructure 2).
The incorporation is the prerequisite for the successful approach to the infrastructure management using information systems. The management genius Porter recognizes that aggressive proposals concentrated between the technological dominance always contributes to the service excellence and the complete client service and produces greater percent of prospective with long life success against the rivals. The management field incorporated with the information systems will help the increment of efficiency of the organization.
The implication of the information systems will add to the overall feedback for the parks and recreation centers. Planning and execution of the strategies become easier and effective with the application of the information systems. The infrastructure management is done with the help of different information systems in the parks and recreation centers around the globe just because of their advantages in the field.
The information systems for the infrastructure management purposes is a topic of research being carried out in the contemporary world of efficiency and speed. The most modern information system developed in the infrastructure management requirement is the Remote Infrastructure Management. “Remote Infrastructure Management at one level is an alternative to existing sourcing models of Infrastructure Management Services.” (Remote Infrastructure Management para 2).
The installation of remote infrastructure management services in parks and recreation sectors facilitates the remote access and control over their infrastructure. Such systems consist of monitoring of the infrastructure in an isolated mode and administering their components along with executing the practical actions. Remote Infrastructure Management services consist of remote (outside the physical premises of a company’s facilities) monitoring and managing the infrastructure components and taking proactive steps and curative proceedings athwart the land. Nowadays, the Remote Infrastructure Management Services are gaining its importance in the field of information systems replacing their previous versions.
Advancements using Information Systems
The analysis till here saw the various applications of the information systems within the parks and recreation areas. The advancements using the information systems are evaluated under this head. The utilization of information systems has produced various expansions in the entire business sectors.
Pace is one of the major advantages of the information systems in parks and recreation or any other areas. The speedy transactions and managing becomes possible with application of the information systems. The customers always get satisfied with the speedy procedures rather than lengthy ones. The elimination of manual working in billing, access, management etc is always welcome due to the sped constraint in such cases. Right time renewal of the data is one of the speedy accesses of information with the information systems.
The employment strength can be decreased with the help of the information systems. Only a lesser number of employees are required, if information systems are employed at the parks and recreation centers. A few skilled workers are required instead of many unskilled employees. The decrease in the employment strength contributes to mainly two important advantages. One is lower expense in the name of salary and the second one is efficiency. Idleness and tiredness will affect the human workers but not the information systems. Servicing at intervals is the only requisite of the systems in the course of their job along with power supply. The profit from the account of the salary expense will add to the expansion of the parks and recreation centers. As the number of employees decreases, the efficiency of the management of staff of the firm increases. Bu, the employment opportunities in terms of the unskilled work decreases which is compensated by the increase in the requirements for skilled employees.
The reliability and security of the management of parks is assured by the installation of information systems. The databases and the infrastructures are safe and intact in the case of the information systems; else they entirely depend on the human managers. The ease to reach the databases and the live observations of the infrastructure lead to an efficient management of the parks and recreation. The development of the parks and recreation owing to the live updating of the infrastructure and management becomes possible.
When the term efficiency is taken, there come nonstop applauses for the information systems. The redundancies due to the human errors cannot attack the management of the parks when the information systems are employed. Once the system is set without errors, the future errors are feared with least percent chance of occurrence. Lesser errors and least delays lead to an efficient required outcome. The elimination of manual billing and database management are the causes for the achievement of those advantages without fail.
The analysis of the proper functioning of the parks can be achieved without delay and misinterpretations. Even live observations are possible in the usage domain of information systems. The developmental activities can thus be paced up in this case. Therefore, the overall development in profit is resulted along in all aspects. The customers getting satisfaction are the main profit in the case of the park and recreation. The satisfied customers always add to the expansion of profit for them.
The initial installation charges alone are huge, and later on, profit is present eliminating excess salary expense and increasing the number of satisfied customers. A part of the profit can be utilized for developmental procedures which will again add to the asset and profit of the parks.
The essential thing for attaining the entire advantages is the correct design and installation of the systems. A small error can bring about redundancy in the entire set up leading to erroneous output. Also, the initial charges are huge making it impossible for small parks getting installed expensively. But the fact is revealed as the acceptance of the information systems widely after embedding the disadvantages within the enormous merits of the system.
Real Life Illustrations
The real life utilization of information systems is recognized worldwide. The proof for it is the establishment of numerous firms which develop the information systems according to the requirements of the organizations. The information systems at parks and recreation centers are seen widely in the contemporary world. The best example for this is the project on the “Parks & Recreation Information System” to develop a “custom ArcIMS website application” intended “for the City of Boulder, Colorado Parks & Recreation Department.” (Jenson and Stonich 1).
The illustrated real life example shows the acceptance of the information systems in the management of parks across the world.
In the contemporary world the people from the firms opt for the employees who can deal “with the process of, and problems in, developing computer-based information systems in the “real world”.”(Jenkins and Rowley 1).
This shows the intensive influence of the information systems. The student level trainings are arranged because such trained students get more job opportunities than others. That is just due to the installation of information systems at the firms around the globe. Same is the case of the parks where the number of clients is relatively larger; so the relevance of the application becomes stronger. The words spoken over the distant views of opportunities deal with the information systems and the acquirement of skills for developing and handling those systems. Bailey notes that “it is important for industry to have an adaptable and flexible workforce, one that is capable of acquiring whatever skills may be relevant to the changing times and environment”.” (Jenkins and Rowley 3).
The quote explains the hopeful opportunities awaiting a student trained to transact with different information systems, develop, operate and service various information systems. The parks with the administered information systems are competing in the contemporary world to head the line.
The global survey conducted proves that there are many governmental undertakings in various countries carried out to establish information systems in the parks and recreation sector for the convenience of the admin as well as the customers. Already most of the parks are having such facilities with the fact that all the famous parks are compulsorily having it.
The study on the information systems as applicable to the parks and recreation sectors reveals the profits and merits of that action. The world has recognized the importance of information systems and various steps are taken to achieve a cent percent installation in the parks and recreation. The integration of the information system has added ease to the admission and usage of the entire management areas of the organization for effective managing and release of the requirements. The advantages identified are lower maintenance cost with lower salary expense, reduced redundancy due to the least presence of the human errors, increased speed and reliability. The flaws including the higher initial charges and the requirement of accuracy in design of the system are all blurred due to the bright assets of the system. The successful stories of the usage of the information systems have brought about the pace in the spread of the trend of information systems. This has resulted in the expansion of commerce due to launches of new firms for developing, installing and servicing of information systems for various organizations in accordance to their requirements. Also, more job opportunities are made available worldwide with regard to this advent. Job oriented training is being given to the students at the curriculum level with intention of getting opportunity in the market of information systems. To conclude with, it is clear that the introduction of information systems which are the donations of information technology in the management sections can increase the betterment opportunities of the parks and recreation sector.
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