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Second World War: Cause and Technology


This essay discusses the major cause of the Second World War. According to the case findings, the appeasement policy can be singled out as having prompted the start of the war. Further, the paper explains how the technological advancements in the Second World War have shaped modern warfare in the world. Finally, the paper looks into how technological inventions have played an important role in strengthening the military and economic powers of most modern countries.

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Failure of Appeasement Policy

Appeasement means giving in to someone’s demands provided the outcome is valuable and reasonable. Appeasement was a policy that Hitler used against his perceived allies. In the 1930s, politicians in France and Britain realized that the outcome of the treaty of Versailles had unfairly placed major limitations on Germany despite Hitler’s just an understanding character (Weinberg, 1995, p. 989). It was anticipated that the strength of Germany in Europe and in the world would facilitate block the spread of communism to west Europe. In 1936, Hitler believed that with France and Russia signing a new treaty, Germany was unilaterally being sidelined by the whole world. Consequently, Germany commissioned its troops to occupy Rhineland. France was weak to wage war against Germany without British assistance. Therefore, Germany’s Military felt a strong urge to preserve the Rhineland as a valuable frontier (Weinberg, 1995, p. 600).

Neville Chamberlain, the Prime Minister of Britain in 1937, believed that the signing of the treaty of Versailles was unfair because it affected Germany in a negative way. Some of the clauses in it were utterly unfair as they did not give German the benefit of the doubt. He argued that by allowing Hitler’s demands, another possible war would be prevented (Weinberg, 1995, p.118).

The Munich agreement of 1938, signed by Germany, Italy, and France, led to the return of Sudetenland territory back to Germany. In return, Germany was obliged not to make any other claim. Other governments, such as the Czech government, were not invited to the meeting. This led to massive protests, in the Czech Republic, from those opposed to losing Sudetenland. The Czech government felt that they were ignored unduly by not being invited to the conference at which the agreement was struck. They felt betrayed by France, which was a key ally and player in the Munich agreement (Weinberg, 1995, p. 98). Later, Germany, by not respecting appeasement agreements especially the Munich agreement and pressing on with its expansionist interests, precipitated the declaration of World War II

New Technology in the Second World War

New technological advancement during the Second World War played a significant role in fueling the war; the involved countries tried to show their power i.e., military prowess through the use of new weaponry and equipments. The desire to prove weaponry and military supremacy led to massive innovation and invention of equipments and the formulation of new strategies in order to win the war. The inventions not only played an important role in the Second World War, but some of the World War II weaponry and equipments also continue to shape the balance of power in the modern world. One of the inventions during this period was the aircraft. During the First World War, much fighting was by foot soldiers.

However, in the Second World War, biplanes were extensively used. The planes were improved on making them faster and easier to maneuver in the air (Carafano, 2006, p. 104). Biplanes were a definitive feature of the Second World War. Despite being largely unpopular before the war, they were seen as light, stronger, and efficient. This facilitated the easier movement of weapons and helped the military move from one place to another. The technology of aircraft comprised of two types; the fighter and the fighter jets. The fighter aircraft was fitted with a single-engine. They were fully equipped with machine guns on the front and carried only one or two pilots. It was a commonly used aircraft during the Second World War. The Fighter Jet, on the other hand, was a bomber aircraft (Carafano, 2006, p. 127).

During World War I, Bombers were ineffective because they were small and could not carry heavy bombs. They had the short-range capability and were inefficient during battle planning. During World War II, The bombers developed were largest ever assembled, and they had a stronger engine, which made them lighter and powerful. Much refinement has been done during the years, and in the contemporary world, more efficient warplanes have been developed to meet the security or warfare needs of most countries.

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The invention of the jeep as a means of transporting troops was a major breakthrough in the transport revolution. The jeep was commonly used during the Second World War and later became a vehicle for public transport. Tank transport was an elaborate technology by World War II, and the tank was the most important vehicle used during the War (Carafano, 2006, p. 7). The tankers were strong, faster, light, and powerful. Tank warfare was a vital ingredient in the Second World War because it allowed the carriage of more weapons to distant places. Individual countries involved in the war produced their own models of tanks to meet their war needs. The tank was a heavily armored vehicle (Carafano, 2006, p. 106).


In conclusion, the failure of the appeasement policy was the major cause of World War II. Had Europe not chosen the appeasement road, Germany would not have reconsolidated its resources again. The appeasement period only helped German to enhance its arsenal; this period, it seems, was also used by Britain and its allies to consolidate their capacity before declaring a war that was clearly inevitable. Some of the technological developments during the World War II period continue to be used to date. World War II led to many nations investing in innovation and invention in shipbuilding, aircraft technology, and ground vehicle design. It is also during that period that nuclear energy found usage in military operations. This technological innovation continues to shape the military options of most modern countries in the world.

Reference List

Carafano, J., J., (2006), GI Ingenuity: Improvisation, Technology, and Winning World War II. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Weinberg, G. L. (1995). A World at Arms: a Global History of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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