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Emotional Work and Diversity in Clinical Placements

Research Method Used in the Article

The article “Emotional Work and Diversity in Clinical Placements of Nursing Students” forms part of Daniella Arieli’s works. It deploys in-depth interviews, which lie in the category of qualitative data collection methods, to examine nursing students’ encounters with clinical appointments, particularly in environments characterized by diverse individuals, including the approaches they deploy to manage challenges associated with these settings.

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Research Problem

According to Arieli (2013), clinical placements have been confirmed as resourceful in boosting health officers’ expertise and occupational identities. Nevertheless, this author examines the underlying emotional problems and strain associated with this healthcare endeavor. In particular, nursing learners experience emotional troubles when interacting with diverse sick people and staff in hospital settings.

Research Purpose

This article investigates various challenges and coping mechanisms that can help students to manage stress and emotional difficulties linked to their appointments in fields characterized by race-based pressure and diversity. This study deploys the notion of “emotional work” (Arieli, 2013, p. 193) to analyze their encounters and study patterns in such harsh environments.

Literature Review Summary

The article quotes works of various authors to substantiate claims that health professionals cannot progress in their careers if issues such as “safety and security, belongingness, healthy self-concept, and learning” (Arieli, 2013, p. 193) fail to be addressed accordingly. The literature review reveals numerous elements that need to be put in place to boost clinicians’ contentment levels. For instance, invitational aspects of health facilities where caregivers operate determine their satisfaction and, consequently, emotional conditions. In addition, this article quotes previous studies that indicate the extent of stress, which nurse students undergo when interacting with sick people. As a result, Arieli’s (2013) literature review confirms that indeed emotional management is fundamental for medical practitioners.

Theoretical Framework

This article’s theoretical structure is founded on “phenomenological sociology” (Arieli, 2013, p. 194), which forms the basis of the qualitative study approach and the inductive method deployed to examine the subject under investigation. The current study applies the qualitative approach whereby in-depth interviews are conducted to gather data that can help to reveal how nurses identify their daily healthcare activities, including the underlying encounters.

Research Questions

The article under investigation identifies two research questions. However, based on the selected inductive research approach, hypotheses do not apply to Arieli’s (2013) study. Although health officers undergo a wide range of challenges, the selected queries focus on gathering data to reveal problems related to diversity. According to Arieli (2013), these questions include:

  • What are the emotional experiences of the students regarding their clinical placements?
  • What are the ways through which they interpret and manage their experiences?


Although variables in the current article are not explicitly stated, it is possible to identify them. The dependent variable revolves around nurse students’ daily experiences and perceptions when operating in a racially diverse setting. Independent variables include “stress, ambivalence, disgust, frustration, and conflict” (Arieli, 2013, p. 192). The ethnic group of the selected 20 students may be viewed as the demographic variable.

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Research Design

The article being examined applies the inductive study design of gathering qualitative data regarding several nursing scholars from Israel (Arieli, 2013). This study design is appropriate for the current research that seeks to observe behavioral patterns of medical practitioners in their culturally diverse clinical settings. Such observations are expected to determine theories that can best be deployed to substantiate the existence of the observed experiences and perceptions. Bearing in mind that the author is assessing a relatively new nursing college, the inductive research design is appropriate because it enables her to use the study’s findings to come up with suitable theories and meanings comparable to the selected setting.

Validity and Reliability of Instruments, Tools, or Survey Used

Arieli (2013) uses in-depth interviews as her study instruments. Although she may analyze responses given to get the bigger picture regarding the subject required, validity issues may be observed because this tool makes it problematic to locate opinions from respondents within the wider theoretic framework, which the scholar wishes to emphasize. In addition, this instrument is associated with reliability issues due to the flexibility of questions posed and challenges linked to repeat research on the same subject. However, accuracy is guaranteed because first-hand information is gathered when this tool is used.

The Significance of the Study

This study is significant because it helps to inform nursing operations, especially in culturally diverse environments. It also influences the development of coping mechanisms that can be taught to caregivers operating in environments characterized by diversity, including ways of managing their emotions when handling patients. Research questions raised in the article are resolved because Arieli’s (2013) findings reveal several aspects that describe health officers’ emotional experiences, including anxiety, ambivalence, repulsion, aggravation, and disagreements. Their “emotional work” approaches to managing these strains have also been resolved to consist of mechanisms such as isolating themselves and self-encouragement among others.

Legal and Ethical Considerations

In line with the laid-down policies that seek to protect the rights of human subjects, the current article conforms to the set ethical considerations. In particular, the academic institution’s ethics commission permitted this study to be conducted. The nursing department leader also accepted it. Consent was sought. Respondents were free to take part in this research with the assurance that all their details would be kept confidential.

Cultural Aspects

Bearing in mind that Israel has two major languages, namely, Hebrew and Arabic (Arieli, 2013), this study includes participants from both cultures in a representative manner, although one participant from the Circassian community is included.

Final Sample

The final sample consists of 20 participants. 50% of them are Arabs who further include five women and five men. Nine of the remaining 10 nursing students come from the Jewish community in the ratio of two men to seven women. Only one of the 20 sampled students is a Circassian.

Data Collection Procedure

A graduate learner is selected to carry out interviews following a procedure that guides them on the order to follow when asking questions. The interviewing session is planned to take approximately 50 minutes per interviewee.

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Results Summary

This research deployed the inductive content data analysis approach. Results indicated that indeed nursing scholars face emotional challenges when subjected to ethnically diverse working environments. Findings also reveal that nurse students apply various coping mechanisms such as distancing themselves from disagreements and lowering their significance in such harsh diverse settings.

Future Nursing Practices

According to Arieli (2013), results from the current study may influence future nursing activities. They can inform the development of strategies that encourage health officers to learn how to deal with their inner feelings and, consequently, those of the sick. Future health practitioners stand a better chance of overcoming any stress or emotional issues associated with their careers. In particular, results from this study may lead to the development of mechanisms for managing language differences bearing in mind that medical communication is done using the English language in virtually all health facilities.

Students’ Nursing Practice

This study can be applied to students’ nursing practices in various ways. For instance, since most of them are new to diverse patients and staff, they may be taught the challenges associated with operating in such settings, including strategies they can deploy to manage them.


Arieli, D. (2013). Emotional work and diversity in clinical placements of nursing students. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 45(2), 192-201.

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