Compare information systems in business
The use of Information Systems (IS) in business is often a key factor in organizational success. Different classifications of IS exist as researchers identify from three to five levels of the use of data. It is possible to identify three types of IS: transaction processing, management, and decision support systems (Peppard & Ward, 2016). Transaction processing systems are operated by front-line workers and employees. This level is concerned with data collection. Management information systems involve data categorization, processing, and analysis. Managers’ reports that usually include recommendations are provided to the higher-level employees (including executives). Decision-support systems involve simulations, forecasts, and various graphs that help executives to analyze data and make decisions.
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Identify strategic decision-making models and systems
Many strategic decision-making models and systems have been developed and employed in different organizations and contexts. These models mainly involve such major steps as the identification of the issue, the development of the decision, and its implementation. Some researchers have expanded the list of steps and made the models more detailed. Therefore, strategic decision-making models often include such stages as the acknowledgment of the urgency, data collection, data analysis, the development of the decision, its implementation, and evaluation (Eden & Ackermann, 2013). Some models are characterized by the significant engagement of team members. Thus, these strategies involve such steps as employees’ feedback collection and analysis, the development of various teams, the participation of all the staff (for example, through reporting).
E-business involves the use of the Internet in various business processes. Information sharing is implemented completely via electronic channels. Cassidy (2016) stresses that e-business is not confined to the use of technology, but is concerned with the “integration of people, processes, and technology to conduct business” (p. 3). E-commerce can be associated with the delivery of products or services. Some of the peculiarities of this model include the reduction of costs, customer-oriented approach, innovation, rapid development. Businesspeople do not face various restrictions conventional businesses have to handle. For example, e-retailers do not have to arrange physical stores as people can choose items online, and the products can be delivered from the producer to the customer.
Explain ethics and information security
In the Age of Information, personal (as well as other types of) information are specifically valued. People often share their data (names, addresses, financial data, etc.) with companies that have to keep this information confidential (Peltier, 2016). Organizations have codes of ethics that ensure employees’ proper conduct. Businesses ensure their customers that the data will be used for particular purposes (in case the customers’ permission is granted). Some companies should also make sure that their customers receive the most detailed information concerning their operation, decisions, and so on. Data security is another responsibility of organizations. Information security is often ensured through the use of the corresponding software and various methods (passwords, limited access, and the like).
Explain the three components of enterprise architecture and define architectures and systems
Enterprise architecture can be defined as a major framework used to manage information and various business processes (Giachetti, 2016). In simple terms, enterprise architecture is a set of principles that govern all the business processes that take place in this or that organization. Enterprise systems can be defined as paradigms that are used in different contexts. The major components of enterprise architecture are information, infrastructure, and application. First, companies should understand what information is relevant and which is not. It is also important to identify the necessary resources to ensure the proper flow of information and its processing. Finally, it is vital to identify specific ways and methods used to manage the obtained data.
Define all aspects of databases and use them within the system
Databases are used to store various types of information, which is a crucial component of business operations. Databases can be characterized by the following aspects, the development of the corresponding software, the installation of the software, regular upgrades, disaster recovery, performance improvement, and backups (Manning, 2015). When using a database, it is crucial to make sure that it is the most effective way to store and access data. Companies are often interested in different attributes, which affects the features of the user database. It is also important to make sure that it is easy to navigate the database. Databases should be upgraded on a regular basis. Since the volume of data increases rapidly, the performance of the applied database should be under constant improvement.
Describe different types of Networks, telecommunications, and mobile technology
Companies utilize different types of networks to remain competitive in the global business world. For instance, local area networks are often used for the communication of employees (Cowley, 2012). Data security can be ensured quite easily. A virtual private network is often used for the provision of access to employees working out of the office. Broadband services are associated with the use of telephone lines. Mobile technology has become quite popular, and many people (especially in some distant locations) use mobile technologies to access the Internet. This type of technology relies on the use of cellular networks. Wireless telecommunication networks have acquired much popularity due to their convenience.
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Explain what management is and what the correlation between management and information technology is
Management can be defined as control over certain processes (Schwalbe, 2015). For example, it is important to make sure that the communication channels are effective or the production of components will not be disrupted. The use of information technology enables businesspeople to manage various processes more effectively. At that, information technologies can also shape the way processes are managed. For instance, the use of Information Systems helps managers to control the communication between different employees or between the company and customers. Managers choose the Information Systems that can help them control various operations in the most efficient way. Therefore, it is possible to note that management and information systems affect each other.
Describe customer relationship management and the four management philosophies
Some businesses try to focus on the development of proper relationships with customers. This type of management involves paying significant attention to communication channels, benefits for customers (as well as communities), research aimed at identifying the needs and desires of existing and potential customers (Hislop, 2013). The four management philosophies include production-oriented, market-oriented, sales-oriented, and stakeholders-oriented frameworks. The paradigms differ in terms of the major focus. For example, production-oriented management is concerned with the processes associated with production. When a market-oriented approach is employed, business people try to understand the market they operate in and follow the existing rules. In sales-oriented companies, people focus on the increase in sales, which are regarded as the major measurement of the company’s performance.
Describe the concepts of enterprise resource planning and collaboration systems
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a complex management system controlling major business processes (Monk & Wagner, 2012). This type of management is facilitated by the use of technology (including information systems). ERP is associated with information management as businesses have to understand what resources are needed to produce and deliver goods or services. Collaboration systems are information systems that improve the communication between different groups, departments, or employees. These technologies may include networks, databases with limited access, the use of specific software. The key factor affecting the functioning of these systems is their flexibility and upgrade. All employees should have the necessary access and be encouraged to contribute to the development of the system.
Evaluate what systems development and project management are and their place in IT
The development of systems, as well as project management, can be regarded as the foundation or the frame of any business and successful project (Oberlender, 2014). Managers create paradigms that define methods and strategies used to achieve certain organizational goals. Information technologies help people accomplish various objectives within the defined time frames. At the same time, project management and systems development are also crucial for the development of IT. Information technologies are used in different spheres, so each system or technology has its peculiarities. Project management and systems development can ensure that new technologies can be applied in the necessary contexts through the control over all stages of new technologies’ development.
Explain the place of IT in the global realm and in the 21st century
Information technologies have become an integral part of the modern business world. The abundance of data is a considerable opportunity, but it is also a significant obstacle (Reynolds, 2015). Businesses should be able to use the most relevant information effectively. Companies can analyze various types of information, develop forecasts, and come up with winning business strategies. Communication is another pivotal component of a successful business. IT can provide the most effective communication channels. Business people can communicate with their customers and partners, while employees can share information with each other or customers. E-commerce and Internet-of-Things have already become common business practices. IT will continue its evolvement in the 21st century, which may transform the global business world.
Cassidy, A. (2016). A practical guide to planning for e-business success: How to re-enable your enterprise (2nd ed.). New York, NY: CRC Press.
Cowley, J. (2012). Communications and networking: An introduction (2nd ed.). London, England: Springer Science & Business Media.
Eden, C., & Ackermann, F. (2013). Making strategy: The journey of strategic management (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Giachetti, R. (2016). Design of enterprise systems: Theory, architecture, and methods (2nd ed.). New York, NY: CRC Press.
Hislop, D. (2013). Knowledge management in organizations: A critical introduction (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Manning, A. (2015). Databases for small business: Essentials of database management, data analysis, and staff training for entrepreneurs and professionals. New York, NY: Apress.
Monk, E., & Wagner, B. (2012). Concepts in enterprise resource planning (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Oberlender, G. D. (2014). Project management for engineering and construction (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional.
Peltier, T. (2016). Information security policies, procedures, and standards: Guidelines for effective information security management (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Peppard, J., & Ward, J. (2016). The strategic management of information systems: Building a digital strategy (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
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Reynolds, G. (2015). Information technology for managers (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Schwalbe, K. (2015). Information technology project management (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.