The studies in occupational therapy in most points serve as the guarantee for would-be therapists. In this respect, the significance of supporting a knowledge base along with the experience of mature specialists in this sphere is of great significance. The research in the paper is dedicated to the problem of many women which appears to be related to cancer. In this case, the grid by Cote and Turgeon (2005) will be used. The whole perspective of the research is implied in its practical title, namely ‘Creative Adventures and Flow in Art-Making: A Qualitative Study of Women Living with Cancer’ (Reynolds & Prior, 2006).
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It is not for nothing that such a topic is chosen. At present time the research in this field of medical concernment is still open in the implementation of new methodologies and therapies for optimal results. Qualitative research is implied in the paper. Its significance provides a scope of detailed information about the phenomenon under analysis. Moreover, it serves, as an additional source for further researches in this sphere. In fact, the credibility and reliability of sources and information, on the whole, is based on contemporary studies. The trustworthiness of the research props up against the qualitative analysis of both theoretical and practical fields in nursing.
The problem of cancer is a striking problem for today’s women. A deeper look at the problem is coordinated with the findings of eminent experts in medical approaches and social statistics as well. On the surface of the paper more attention, first, is paid to the evaluation and observation of the problem. Second, the research corresponds to the particular methods for a decrease of the problem. All in all, the critique imposed in the study encompasses the fullness of the knowledge base in medical innovative therapies and pre-caution procedures.
The credibility and validity of the sources represent special importance for the flow of the research. Thereupon, the aims of most authors are biased according to the thoughts of previous studies. However, the credentials of the points outlined in the paper do not represent something going apart from the main idea. In this point, the research is firm in the argumentative background of ideas implemented by specialists in medicine and practical psychology. Wright et al (2006) represent a special outlook on the concept of flow in occupation. This group of authors is one of the numerous examples in the research that clearly disclose the domain of qualitative methods in the therapeutic dimension. Hence, the research is set regarding the strong points of studies included in it. The objectives of the qualitative research are stated accordingly. Thus, among the devoted to the problem researchers, the major part represents the psychological treatment as paramount.
Reynolds & Prior (2006) describe in their study the problem as it comes to women living with cancer. In this respect, the researchers are apt in using a scope of descriptive materials, so that to involve an ordinary observer in the complexity of the issue. The importance of flow is indicated in the article specifically for the purpose of positive evaluation. Such positive living with cancer emphasizes the background for probable recovery. Notwithstanding, being involved in activities women would have an opportunity to pay more attention to visual art-making. Before starting the significance of this aspect of activities it is vital, first to provide a notion for the concept of flow which is underlined in the study. Their observation runs into a similar qualitative methodology as Curtin & Fossey (2007) followed. In this respect, the versatile picture of evidence correlates the scope of the questions to be comprised and evaluated. In other words, the scope of areas and participants in the research are determined in accordance with the significance of the problem. In this respect the theoretical background of the studies in cancer among women is needful. The integrity of the research falls into the principle of qualitative evaluation of its constituents. Hence, to make the research trustworthy and rich in validity and reliability the points of rigor and ethical integrity are included. All in all, the grounded theory of correct psychological treatment for women living with cancer needs more discussion from the side of current researchers.
The scope of participants in the research represents women with early disease cancer. In most cases, it touches upon breast cancer and gynaecologic complications which may cause the emergence of the disease. The audience of women represents live evidence from their lives. This helps make improvements about the problem in accordance with individual experiences, biological facts, and professional knowledge (Gregory & Russell, 1999). Qualitative research promotes an outlook on the personal remarks of the participants, their experiences, and ways for making the problem less impact on their moral state. Furthermore, such statistical data are useful for the therapeutic needs of doctors and people working in rehabilitation centres. All participants are recommended to tell more about their moral conditioning since the moment they first knew about the disease. As an alternative, the flow of visual art-making is proposed. In this respect, they are put into the picture about the particular meaning of this term and about the significance of the research for their further lives. Jonsson (2006) provides an idea of the rationality of such a method for the further gathering of data. In this respect, Reynolds & Prior (2006) estimate the significance of flow in occupational therapy, as the stimulus for avoiding boredom and stagnation. Arguing this point Jonsson (2006) represents counter fact for such evaluation because flow does not always lead to satisfaction. However, the role of participants is paramount for stating further results and discussing the recommendations.
The methodological distinctiveness of the research makes a particular appropriate move in data collection. In this case, all data collected are gathered by means of individual interviews of patients with therapists. This helps to better involvement in the subject matter. Moreover, it is a helpful step on the pathway toward some extent of relief within patients. Such type of observation correlates the uniqueness of each case for making the whole picture of cancer, the problem. Thus, the research is based on the bits of information about each participant. As the issue under analysis is too significant for the population health, the diversity of data collection is divided also into statistical data and general observation of the problem out of previous and current sources. The facts and assertions from the research materials by other authors serve as the additional means for overcoming the biases as of the subject matter. Thus the purpose of this section is to represent the specific and relevantly many-faceted scope of ways for data collection. Moreover, different techniques for data collection presuppose medical consultations with a therapist, general conclusions about the therapeutic impacts, and comparative analysis with similar cases in other regions, countries, or time periods. Curtin & Fossey (2007) point out the method of triangulation when collecting data. This is helpful for a researcher to have an idea about the central point for discussion from the side of two or more different kinds of observation. Owing to the correctness of data gathering and further implementation into the findings and results of the study, the medical intervention can be directed toward more efficient and effective outcomes (Seale, 2004). On the other hand, during the process of data collection, the position of physicians and nurses can be evaluated and maintained (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005). Thus, this section of the research resolves two issues at once: 1) it gives more points on estimating the reflections of patients from the side of physicians; 2) it is a way to check the reliability and correctness of the consultations and treatment from the side of medical personnel.
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The process of data analysis is another step for making the research more integrated into the detailed description of the evidence of patients. Thereupon, the main urge in this section contemplates the need for inductive division of all materials into proper parts according to their peculiarities. Thus, files with interviews should be designated from files with consultations and recommendations. On the other hand, time prospects and relevance of wording or of diagnosis should be matched into another folder. This makes a researcher involved in the scope of data so that to make some possible parallels afterward. This approach also facilitates the efforts for the records admitted in the last report. The credibility of the data analysis props up against particular techniques in composing information and selecting it. To say more, all files with significance for the research information are exhaustive and persuasive due to the initially qualitative approach when resuming predicted results. To emphasize the validity of the data implied in the flow of the research, the process of data analysis was provided by more than one researcher. This will definitely help in overcoming predicted biases about research. Moreover, this is needful in order to designate the research in its content and methodology from previous ones. All in all, the combinations of approaches when analyzing data vary in technical and practical aspects.
The significance of the relationship between occupation and flow demonstrates the credibility of this approach for women with cancer. The first outlook was set on the patients’ feelings before the research. It was done to optimally strengthen the point of data evaluation. In this respect, the data analysis showed that most of the participants were almost similar in their remarks about constant personal worries. Most of them admitted stress factors which were resulted in total depressions. The results of the research showed that a flow experience can be a means for the decrease of negative affection due to the essence of the disease. Being totally involved in the domain of definite occupation the participants stated the high priority of concentration and attention. The occupational activity demonstrated that it is vital to be busy with affairs when there is no other way to lessen the effects of the problem itself. Flow made participants so absorbed by the versatile nature of activities, that they could hardly perceive the time. However, in this respect, it is necessary to assert that not all participants were occupied with interesting or merely purposeful work. They could not definitely state their predominant adornment by the work. In this case the whole involvement in the occupation. Thus, some of the participants experienced time prospects with more points on slowness. In fact, lowness and fastness in perceiving the working scheduled were identified with more points on fastness. Thus, the positive evaluation of the flow in occupation is detected due to the majority of outcomes gathered. The results in most of the debatable issues showed the reliability of the predictions stated initially.
The results provided in the research are positively colored. For the support of such evaluation of low in occupation, it is vital to note that there is a straightforward dependency between occupation and healthcare of individuals. Jonsson & Persson (2006) discuss this problem from the bilateral perspective of skills and challenges with which individuals confront every day. However, the researchers do not judge the reliability of the approach categorically:
To a certain extent, a positive relationship between flow and satisfaction might be in the case, but a breaking point would occur when skill demands are at the limit of one’s capacities and become a heavy burden (Jonsson & Persson, 2006, pp. 63).
The flow theory is applicable to the research. It showed a high percentage of positive evaluation among women with cancer. It is necessary to point out why a part of the group of patients did achieve positive evaluation in terms of the research duration. The researchers in this field of psychological treatment state that not all aspects are included in the theoretical part of the treatment. Nonetheless, the objection of the experts is stated by Wright (2004, pp. 69):
A possible weakness in our current understanding of why people are not able to experience flow from performing a whole range of occupation is that flow theory has not taken into account the meaning the occupation has for the individual.
Wright et al (2006) reconstruct the significance of the challenge-skills model for making the results more comprehensive for observers. In this respect, the credibility of the stages in the research displayed the logical assumptions about the reaction of participants afterward. Challenge-skills experiences of participants showed their feeling of being a little relaxed about the essential evaluation of cancer for their life. Thus, it showed that flow in occupation can fold back an individual from tremendous problems in life and give more grounds for positive thinking.
Unruh &Elvin (2004) support the assertion that the flow in occupation can gain positive results as for the problems with health. The research by the authors showed that the risk of breast cancer among women who were participating in dragon boat racing decreased essentially. This is one more example in favour of the flow theory being included in the practical domain of medicine. The researchers are similar in the idea that being more occupied means finding more reasons to live. This logical but psychologically strong presupposition makes women unintentionally less concentrate on the ominous and mortal evaluation of cancer. Wright et al (2007) insist in their study on the importance of skills-challenge experiences of participants. In this respect, the researchers fairly assert that the “meaning and context of the occupation are particularly important in challenge-skills, enjoyment and mindfulness experiences, but less evident in positive distraction” (Wright et al, 2007, pp. 142). In fact, such supposition is based on the modeling of different situations that appeared in the domain of occupational activities. Nothing goes in the world positively. This is why it is vital to have the ability to resist negative circumstances. An individual is capable to abstract himself/herself from the negative factors of the environment by virtues of the rational flow of activities that are appropriate to the main preferences of an individual.
Ezzy (2002) in his study provides different therapeutic methodologies for the improvement of the healthcare of people. Thus, looking at women with cancer, the researcher admits that such a case of disease illuminates the relation between a sophisticated methodological approach and practical analysis of it. The thing is that the whole nature of the flow, as the generator of stable activities with the wholeness of skills and challenges, is highlighted in its practical implementation. This is why it was not possible to provide a unified activity for all participants. On the other hand, it served as the background for making a difference and analyzing its results.
Jacobs (1994) investigates in his study the applicability of the four-channel model for the evaluation of different results in the research. Thereupon, the researcher notices that the main force for making use of the flow theory can be provided inclusive of anxiety, flow, boredom, and apathy (Jacobs, 1994). These four factors occur in terms of the implementation of skills-challenge experiences. Looking at this statement from the rational point of view it is apparent that individual attempts to analyze all pros and cons when facing the difficulties of life. The main urge props up against the need for having positively coloured results.
The process of data diversification and saturation was accomplished with the points on particular drawbacks which included the way of participants’ selection, the implementation of the research to the national domain, etc. In this respect, the main limitation of the research is concerned with the fact that the results cannot be generalized. All points are stated in strict accordance with the gender of participants, their diagnosis, and the way they should behave during the research. However, there was no mention of its geographical area. This would possibly help to have an idea of the regions with higher or lower extents of maintenance of flow in occupation throughout a definite country. No evidence was accomplished as to the relation of this definite sphere of a medical approach to a relevant sphere in curing people by means of flow in occupation. Such points were not mentioned due to the specific nature of the study. The participants were painstakingly selected to follow the essential instruction for compiling the research in this significant sphere. All participants were united solely in their problem, cancer. Furthermore, the prospect of gender belonging does not give grounds for making suchlike conclusions about men. It is due to the biological and moral peculiarities of the patients. Thus, the whole observation of the research needs clearer learning of its constituent parts. It cannot be observed in terms of the allegedly similar researches due to probable differences in methodological use and the supporting resources. However, the study data and its methods are applicable for having a clear position as to the flow in occupation and its positive effects.
To sum up, the findings of the research are united in the applicability of the flow theory in medicine. This idea throughout the paper provides the supporting views of various researchers. In this respect, it is vital to admit that psychological treatment is really possible for curing cancer or just to make no significant points on the rigor of the issue. When a person is occupied with activities and tries to make them better than usual, then a stimulus for further living may appear. The methodology and the results represent practical relevance of what was expected at the beginning with the results. All in all, the urge of the research for making an optimal explanation of why skills-challenge experience matter for individuals is complete due to the supporting arguments of different researchers. Moreover, the factual background of the work presupposes the reliance of statement to current and further discussion in this field. In this respect, the significance of the research is particularly important for making assumptions as to the improvements in treating cancer among women. Furthermore, it may serve, as one more argument for stepping back from a solely medical approach. It highlights the combination of medical and moral treatment in the social development of individuals. All in all, the research needs extension in the qualitative and quantitative parameters. This would definitely promote more points on theoretical along with a practical necessity for asserting further claims in medical practice and in nursing, particularly.
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Denzin, NK & Lincoln, YS 2005, The SAGE handbook of qualitative research, Ed. 3, SAGE, New York.
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